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Surrogacy arrangements made overseas

 

Re WT (A child) 2014

 

In a situation where a childless couple want a child, sometimes the search is cast very far and wide. At the early stage of the internet, there was outcry in Britain about the Kilshaws, a couple who purchased a baby on the internet from America. That led to the creation of legislation about overseas adoption and in turn surrogacy arrangements.

In this country, there are clear restrictions about surrogacy, and the amount that can be paid to a woman to have a baby on your behalf (it has to be expenses only) and as the High Court recently pointed out in JP v LP and Others 2014, there are criminal offences associated with any actions that are dealing with surrogacy on a commercial basis (even as an intermediary, or in that particular case as a solicitor charging for drawing up documents to make the arrangements as watertight as possible)

 

 

http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Fam/2014/595.html

 

section 2 of the Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985 which says :

2 Negotiating surrogacy arrangements on a commercial basis, etc.

(1)No person shall on a commercial basis do any of the following acts in the United Kingdom, that is—

(a) initiate or take part in any negotiations with a view to the making of a surrogacy arrangement,

(b) offer or agree to negotiate the making of a surrogacy arrangement, or

(c) compile any information with a view to its use in making, or negotiating the making of, surrogacy arrangements;

and no person shall in the United Kingdom knowingly cause another to do any of those acts on a commercial basis.

 

 

On a strict interpretation of that section, even doing the research about surrogacy and giving it to your client by way of advice can fall foul of that, if you then charge them for it s 2 (1) (c)   – it actually looks like not only is the solicitor committing an offence for charging, but the client also for asking them to do it and offering to pay for the advice…

[That might cause a problem with some of the guidance given by the High Court in this case that people contemplating overseas surrogacy should seek specialist advice first]

There are slightly more complicated provisions when the surrogacy is commissioned from a woman living in another country, and that is what Re WT is all about.

 

http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Fam/2014/1303.html

 

In that case, two people sought through an agency – the Kiran infertility centre (which immediately  rang a not entirely positive-sounding bell with me… more later) to commission a woman in India to have a baby on their behalf.

 

The baby was conceived by using the male’s gametes artificially inseminating the woman in India (the use of gametes or an egg or embryo is from one of the commissioning couple what makes it surrogacy rather than an adoption that is paid for) . That woman is named SA in the judgment.

 

The couple paid the sum of $28.000 dollars to the Kiran infertility centre. The biological mother, SA, received 350,000 rupees   (the judgment never actually does the currency calculation, so I will. The woman received roughly $5,800 dollars, leaving the clinic with $22,200. )

 

The couple then made an application for a parental order in the UK, this being what would make them both legally the parents of this child.

 

As the Court carefully point out, such an application HAS to be made within 6 months of the child’s birth – the Court has no power to extend that time-limit. If it isn’t made in time, the Court can’t consider the application.

 

In order for the Court to make the parental order, one of the issues that they need to consider is the consent of the mother – that has to be given at a period after the first six weeks of the child’s life (as an insurance that the decision is not being made at an emotionally vulnerable time, when hormones are having a significant sway on emotions and decision-making)

 

The clinic were less than helpful in getting the evidence about the mother’s consent

The parental order application is dated 14 March 2013. I have dealt with the four directions hearings prior to the final hearing on 4 March 2014. The main concerns I had on the information that was available when the matter first came before me can be summarised as follows:

(1) all the documents signed by SA were in English, including importantly the consent Form A101A. There was no information available as to whether she spoke English, was literate or had had the documents read through and interpreted for her;

(2) the applicants had not met SA and were unable to provide any information about her first language or her level of literacy;

(3) the enquiries they made with the clinic to seek clarity about the circumstances in which SA signed these documents were not responded to by the Clinic in a helpful or constructive way;

(4) the attempts to locate SA at the address on the documents were unsuccessful as the address given by the clinic for her covered a very large area;

 

Because of these issues, the couple sustained considerable additional costs in obtaining better evidence about the mother’s consent, and the judgment is critical of the clinic

The Clinic in this case has not always been helpful in the way it has responded to reasonable requests made on behalf of the applicants, often such requests were following specific directions made by this Court. They were given the opportunity to make representations to this Court but have not done so. Delay was caused as the Clinic insisted on being sent hard copies of the letters requesting information and consent from the applicants to do so. The Clinic makes the fair point that it is not in their interests not to help their clients obtain parental orders. Some of the documents signed by SA appeared to be in a standard form and contained provisions that were not accurate, or were not completed. For example, the ‘Agreement for Surrogacy’ signed on 29 December 2011 contained a provision which stated ‘I have worked out the financial terms and conditions of the surrogacy with the couple in writing and an appropriately authenticated copy of the agreement has been filed with the clinic, which the clinic will keep confidential’. The applicants said they had had no contact with SA in writing and were not aware of any agreement being filed with the Clinic prior to the Agreement for Surrogacy.

 

Eventually, the couple were able to provide the evidence that satisfied the Court that mother had given free and informed consent. The Court was also satisfied that the couple were able to offer the child a good and loving home and that making the parental order was the right thing to do.

 

The Court then looked at the payments – the Court has to retrospectively  authorise those payments under s54(8) when making the parental order.

As the judgment shows, the public policy reasons for this are strong – if the payment is too low, there is a risk that the mother is being exploited, if too high there is a risk that her decision has been swayed by financial considerations. It is also clear that the Court has jurisdiction to look at payments made to the foreign agency   (remember, if you were running a UK surrogacy agency, it would be illegal to charge money for ANY of your services)

Turning finally to the question of payments under s 54(8). Whilst the focus of the court’s consideration is on payments made directly or indirectly to the surrogate mother, it is clear from cases such as Re C [2013] EWHC 2408 (Fam), the payments made to commercial surrogacy agencies operating within the law of foreign jurisdictions require authorisation by the court, insofar as such payment cannot be considered to have been for expenses reasonably incurred.

The applicants have produced a part breakdown of the payments they made totalling almost $28,000. The breakdown given appears incomplete: $11,675 was paid when they registered with the clinic in May 2011 followed by 6 payments of $2,500 between March to October 2012. There are then some one off items listed as post birth administrative fees ($245), notary fee ($260), SA’s travel expenses ($350) and courier charges ($45). No other breakdown of how the sums paid to the Clinic is given, despite requests being made to the Clinic to do so. The Clinic’s unhelpful response to such a request is as follows ‘payments made to clinic for the entire surrogacy process are available with your clients’. If that was the case the request to the Clinic would not have been made.

The applicants had no direct dealing with SA. The only information they have regarding payments made to her are the documents signed by her that confirm she received 3,50,000 R’s. In a subsequent email from the clinic dated 3.1.14 they confirmed that SA was not required to pay the caretaker or Dr Sekhar out of the monies she received and SA in her meeting with the Ms Baria confirmed she received 3,50,000 Rs. This level of payment to the surrogate is the same as authorised in D & L [2012] EWHC 2631 (Fam) [2013] 1 WLR 3135 which concerned the same clinic.

When considering whether to authorise the payments made in this case the relevant principles are firmly established by the cases, starting with Re X and Y (Foreign Surrogacy) [2008] EWHC 3030 (Fam) [2009] 2WLR 1274 (paragraph 19 and 20) and the cases that have followed (in particular Re S (Parental Order) [2009] EWHC 2977 (Fam), Re L (Commercial Surrogacy) [2010] EWHC 3146 (Fam), [2011] 2WLR 1006 Re IJ (Foreign Surrogacy Agreement Parental Order) [2011] EWHC 921 (Fam) [2011] 2FLR 646 and Re X and Y (Parental Order: Retrospective Authorisation of Payments) [2011] EWHC 3147 (Fam)).

(1) the question whether a sum paid is disproportionate to “reasonable expenses” is a question of fact in each case. What the court will be considering is whether the sum is so low that it may unfairly exploit the surrogate mother, or so high that it may place undue pressure on her with the risk, in either scenario, that it may overbear her free will;

(2) the principles underpinning section 54 (8), which must be respected by the court, is that it is contrary to public policy to sanction excessive payments that effectively amount to buying children from overseas.

(3) however, as a result of the changes brought about by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Parental Orders) Regulations 2010, the decision whether to authorise payments retrospectively is a decision relating to a parental order and in making that decision, the court must regard the child’s welfare as the paramount consideration.

(4) as a consequence it is difficult to imagine a set of circumstances in which, by the time an application for a parental order comes to court, the welfare of any child, particularly a foreign child, would not be gravely compromised by a refusal to make the order: As a result: “it will only be in the clearest case of the abuse of public policy that the court will be able to withhold an order if otherwise welfare considerations support its making”, per Hedley J in Re L (Commercial Surrogacy) [2010] EWHC 3146 (Fam), [2011] 2WLR 1006, at paragraph 10.

(5) where the applicants for a parental order are acting in good faith and without ‘moral taint’ in their dealings with the surrogate mother, with no attempt to defraud the authorities, and the payments are not so disproportionate that the granting of parental orders would be an affront to public policy, it will ordinarily be appropriate for the court to exercise its discretion to give retrospective authorisation, having regard to the paramountcy of the child’s lifelong welfare.

I am entirely satisfied the applicants have acted at all times with good faith and without moral taint. They took great care to select the clinic they used, undertook extensive research and enquiries and also formed their own judgment when they visited the clinic. They have displayed independent judgment by not always following the advice of the Clinic, for example which FRRO to secure the exit permit from. There is no evidence to suggest they have been otherwise than honest and candid in all their dealings with the Indian and UK authorities and have complied with the directions of this court. The amounts paid to the Clinic were set by the Clinic in a jurisdiction where commercial surrogacy is not unlawful. The amount paid to SA was not negotiated by them, appears to have been fixed by the Clinic, is the same as a previously authorised payment approved by this Court and is not dissimilar from payments made in similar surrogacy arrangements in Indian clinics. There is no evidence to suggest SA did other than freely consent to the surrogacy arrangement.

In those circumstances the payments made other than for expenses reasonably incurred are authorised by the court

The Court are of course in a bit of a bind here, and that’s hinted at here. Where the Court think that the couple have behaved properly, but that the fees were too high, their only sanction is to refuse to retrospectively approve the payments. But the money has already been spent, so what good does that do? Ultimately, the Court have the power to not make the parental order if they feel that the couple have improperly “bought” the child, but in a case like this where one might feel that they have been ripped off, there’s nothing the Court is likely to be able to do for them.

 

[There’s also, for me, a grey area as to whether when considering whether the payments are so grossly disproportionate that they shouldn’t be allowed, as to whether the Court is looking solely at what the couple pay or what the biological mother receives, and compare that to the value of the money in both countries. It is possible, I don’t know, that $5,800 is not a grossly disproportionate amount here, but in another country that sum of money might compare extremely favourable to annual income]

 

And you will see from the reference to D and L (Minors Surrogacy) 2012 that I was right to recall Kiran Infertility Clinic

 

http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Fam/2012/2631.html

 

In that one, the clinic didn’t get an address for the biological mother, causing huge problems in evidencing their consent. If you read my piece on that at the time,

 

https://suesspiciousminds.com/2012/10/01/be-my-be-my-baby/

 

you might remember this particularly telling feature

 

At that stage, they had still to receive any signed consent from the surrogate mother. They made further requests to the director of the clinic, to no avail. On 13 September, the first Applicant emailed a long letter to the director, setting a deadline for the production of the signed consent, and warning that if the documents were not supplied, they would make formal complaints to the authorities in India and the British High Commission. On 16th September, the Applicants received a DHL package, purportedly from the director of the clinic, containing a single sheet of paper on which was printed an obscene gesture

 

 

As I’m not charging anyone who reads this blog any money, I can give my advice about surrogacy without breaking the criminal law. My advice is, read these judgments and shop around before you decide which agency to use.

 

The Court go on to give some general advice to couples contemplating surrogacy with an overseas woman

 

As can be seen from what I have detailed above this application has not had an easy journey to the final hearing. Adopting the words of Hedley J in the first reported foreign surrogacy case heard over 5 years ago Re X&Y (ibid) paragraph 2 ‘..the path to parenthood has been less a journey along a primrose path, more a trek through a thorn forest.  The court shares their [the applicants] hope that their experiences may alert others to the difficulties inherent in this journey.’

Having dealt with a number of these cases, many of which involve unrepresented applicants, it may be helpful to highlight the areas that cause most difficulty in these cases:

(1) Those who embark on surrogacy arrangements abroad need to be alive to the pitfalls there can be with such an arrangement and it may be wise for commissioning parents to consider taking specialist advice at the earliest opportunity, both here and in the jurisdiction where the arrangement is entered into. To proceed in the absence of such advice can lead to significant emotional and financial hardship and further delay.

[As I commented at the outset, charging for such specialist advice is not as straightforward as one might hope]

(2) It is critical that an accurate documentary account of the various steps is kept by the commissioning parents so it can be available, if required, in support of a parental order application to assist in satisfying the relevant criteria under section 54. This is particularly relevant when considering any payments made and what, if any, are caught by the provisions of s 54(8). What is most helpful for the court is a schedule setting out the payments made and what they were for.

(3) A parental order application has to be made within six months of the child’s birth. There is no power vested in the court to extend that period. The recent decision of Mrs Justice Eleanor King in JP v LP and Others [2014] EWHC 595 (Fam), although in the context of a domestic surrogacy, is a timely reminder of the legal complexities if such an application is not made in time. Parental orders change parental status permanently, extinguishing the parental status of the surrogate mother entirely (and her husband, if applicable). Such orders confer legal parenthood and parental responsibility on both applicants for such an order.

(4) The requirement for the surrogate mother (and her husband if she is married) to give consent freely, unconditionally and with full understanding of what is involved is a fundamental part of the s 54 criteria. Depending on the circumstances the commissioning parents may need to consider meeting the legal fees for the surrogate mother, limited to taking advice on the consequences of a parental order being made. The cost of such advice is likely to be considered an expense reasonably incurred. In addition, it is clearly essential there is evidence to demonstrate (if required in the circumstances of the case) that any document signed by the surrogate mother is understood by her and, if necessary, translated into her first language before she signs it. Again, any costs incurred for this are likely to be considered an expense reasonably incurred.

(5) In this case the applicants were not able to meet the surrogate mother which in the Court’s experience is relatively unusual. If they had met her they may have been able to provide helpful information to the Court. In the event commissioning parents are not able to meet the surrogate mother they should seek to establish clear lines of communication with the surrogate mother, and ensure she is made aware during the pregnancy that she will need to give consent at least six week after the birth.

 

I wish this couple the very best of luck with their child, and it is a shame that so much additional cost and stress was caused to them in this process. They chose their UK lawyers very wisely in this case, in my humble opinion, and were in the best possible hands.

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About suesspiciousminds

Law geek, local authority care hack, fascinated by words and quirky information; deeply committed to cheesecake and beer.

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